Refractive Error:: It can be far sightedness (Hypermetropia), Short sightedness (Myopia) or astigmatism (cylindrical error). Every child must be tested for visual acuity and for color vision at an early age.
Squint:: All eye deviations should be brought to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Usually it is because of some type of refractive error and once treated appropriately, patient attains a good visual acuity and parallelism.
Amblyopia or Lazy Eye:: In children less than 10 years of age it can be very effectively treated by occlusion therapy. By occluding the better eye the child is forced to see from the lazy eye. Occlusion therapy with patching is the treatment of choice.
Injuries :All black eyes, every injury in children should be treated as an emergency. Injury can be blunt, perforating or with retained intraocular foreign body. Many eyes can be saved, if treated on time.
Childhood Infections:: Any discharge from the eye should be reported and treated immediately on lines of emergency.
Congenital Cataract:: Any suspicion of a white pupil (leukocoria) in child may be due to a congenital Cataract. Cataract in children is treatable and an intraocular lens can be implanted inside the eyes like adults.
Childhood Glaucoma:: There is minimal awareness that glaucoma exists even in childhood. The early symptoms may be increased watering, photophobia or cloudy cornea, or increase in size of eye ball. A thorough examination is required for diagnosing and if treated early gives excellent visual outcome.
Abnormalities of lacrimal drainage system:: This causes constant watering in one or both eyes with or without discharge from the eyes.